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IoT, the connection of physical objects via the Internet, is finding practical applications in various fields today. In full development, this concept deserves some insights. A brief overview of the Internet of Things concept, current use cases, advantages and disadvantages, available connectivity technologies, and their strengths and limitations.

✅ A concise guide to thoroughly understand IoT and its stakes.

IoT and its current application areas

The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the concept of connecting everyday objects to the Internet. By communicating with each other and interacting with their environment, these objects enable the optimization of a domain without human intervention. In practical terms, IoT relies on a connectivity technology to gather data, analyze it, define actions, and give orders. The Internet of Things allows for the creation of intelligent, autonomous, and more efficient systems. Today, IoT is successfully implemented in various domains:

🏘️ The Smart Building: The intelligent building (or house) relies on numerous connected objects to optimize its operation and energy management.

🌇 Smart Cities: Connecting numerous urban objects enables the implementation of optimal waste management, public lighting, traffic control, public transportation, and information systems.


➡️ With UBI Smart, innovative solutions are offered for the management of police and public transportation operations.


🏗️ Industry 4.0: IoT is integrated into the supply chain, predictive maintenance, and even asset tracking. UBI Solutions has developed its Assets Tracking range for seamless traceability of all assets and a quick overview of all activities within the company.

Also Read: Asset tracking, a challenge for Industry 4.0.

🚜 Smart Agriculture: IoT enhances crop monitoring, refines fertilizer or pesticide requirements, and manages irrigation with high precision.

Also Read: IoT for a smarter agriculture

🚑 Health: IoT enables the creation of effective medical monitoring devices and patient tracking systems. UBI Solutions' BLE tags, for example, allow for precise tracking of hospital assets. Suitable for all formats, their use within a real-time location network facilitates inventory management within healthcare facilities.

Also Read: Medical equipment under control in hospitals

🚚 Transportation: IoT is used to optimize the tracking of vehicle fleets and their usage. With the Connected Lock, UBI Solutions combines cargo geolocation, unforeseen event management, and enhanced security. The system detects route deviations, violations, suspicious door openings, and allows for remote unlocking.

Also Read: Safer and more efficient transport of goods

🛡️ Security: UBI Smart relies on IoT to establish autonomous and seamless systems dedicated to control, enforcement, and protection.

Discover the solutions offered by UBI Smart.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of IoT

An objective definition of the advantages as well as the disadvantages allows for a realistic approach to the use of IoT. Five main advantages and five main disadvantages have been identified.

 ✅ The Advantages of IoT:

  • Automation and enhanced system efficiency;

  • Real-time data-driven decision-making;

  • Improved productivity and operational processes (e.g., reduced human operators, optimization of production lines or logistics);

  • Resource optimization and cost reduction;

  • Enhanced quality of life and safety (e.g., home automation and smart cities).

 ⛔ The Disadvantages of IoT:

  • Potential issues with data security and privacy (*);

  • Ensuring interoperability between different devices and their connection protocols;

  • System scalability and managing potentially large volumes of data;

  • Dependence on reliable Internet connectivity;

  • High implementation and maintenance costs in certain sectors.

(*) In certain domains, IoT can raise concerns regarding the privacy of data collected for its operation. Personal information related to access authorization, for example, must comply with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) requirements. Similarly, while gathering information about the habits of occupants in a smart building is beneficial for energy network management, it may infringe on their privacy.

The Technologies Used: Strengths and Limitations

At the core of IoT operation, the connectivity technology used defines the scope of the deployed system. Currently, there are seven different connectivity technologies particularly in use. Each has its strengths and limitations:


Indeed, the Wi-Fi technology is widely recognized and extensively employed in residential and commercial IoT applications. It offers a swift and straightforward connectivity solution for short-range devices. Nevertheless, Wi-Fi tends to be power-intensive, which can constrain the battery life of IoT devices. As a result, in the logistics sector, Wi-Fi is utilized for resource and inventory management in warehouses, particularly when the conditions for wave propagation are suitable.

Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)

Just as famous, Bluetooth is a short-range wireless communication technology. While it tends to be power-intensive, it is commonly used to connect small personal devices such as smartphones, headphones, or various types of sensors. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) addresses this power consumption issue. It optimizes battery-powered devices without reducing the transmission range. This technology is widely used in Industry 4.0. UBI Solutions offers BLE tags/beacons to track products in a distribution chain. When placed on the container, they facilitate traceability, geolocation, and inventory automation.

Tracker UBI

RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification)

This technology uses RFID tags for wireless identification and object tracking. RFID tags contain information that can be read remotely by readers. It is used in inventory management, logistics, access control, etc. Very affordable, easy to install, and effective, RFID technology is highly valued in many sectors today. You can refer to the following article for more information on the subject. Very affordable, easy to install, and effective, RFID technology is highly valued in many sectors today. You can refer to the following article for more information on the subject.


This communication technology is characterized by its long range and low energy consumption. It is particularly useful for IoT networks requiring extensive coverage, such as sensor networks in rural areas or densely populated urban areas. However, the bandwidth is limited. Additionally, the waiting time between the arrival of information and the response (latency) is higher than other technologies. With its significant range, LoRaWAN is used for managing large-scale logistics chains. In practice, vehicles and their cargo can be traced over long distances, including in complex environments.


LTE-M (Long Term Evolution for Machines) is a cellular communication technology optimized for connected devices. It provides extensive coverage, low power consumption, and good obstacle penetration. LTE-M is well-suited for large-scale IoT applications requiring reliable connectivity. This technology is particularly used to connect freight-carrying trucks. Its expanded coverage enables regular data transmission to the relevant warehouses.

NB-IoT (Narrowband IoT)

This cellular connectivity technology is specifically designed for low-power connected devices. It offers excellent obstacle penetration and long-range capabilities, making it suitable for applications such as asset tracking, environmental monitoring, etc. Additionally, this technology has the significant advantage of being able to connect objects directly to 2G and 3G antennas. This characteristic opens up the possibility of extending a logistics tracking network globally through various mobile operators.

The blockchain

Blockchain technology is used in IoT to ensure the security, authenticity, and traceability of data exchanged between connected devices. It enables the creation of decentralized and immutable ledgers, which is beneficial for applications such as supply chain management, logistics, energy management, etc. Estonia utilizes this technology to protect all its databases. After a cyberattack in 2007, local authorities chose to establish a national blockchain to ensure the integrity of data stored by all Estonian government agencies.

As seen, IoT can rely on numerous connectivity technologies for its development. This diversity demonstrates the innovation strength committed to developing this concept. According to a study by the European Union(1), IoT linked with Artificial Intelligence (AI) and big data are currently at the core of the global economy. By 2025, more than 41 billion objects worldwide will be connected. Beyond the reliability and security of the connection, the development of IoT calls for the development of orchestration and computing tools of considerable power. Another challenge for all stakeholders involved in this technological leap!



Renaud Munier

Renaud Munier